English Literature for ÖABT english

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A story which has meaning on both the literal and figurative or moral level. e.g. “Young Goodman Brown” , Scarlet Letter, Star Wars
The repetition of sounds in a group of words as in “Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers.”
A reference to a person, place, or thing--often literary, mythological, or historical. The infinitive of allusion is to allude. e.g. Romeo alludes to the mythological figure Diana in the balcony scene.
A major character who opposes the protagonist in a story or play.
A character who represents a certain type of person. e.g. mother/father figure hero/heroine the know-it-all
The repetition of vowel sounds as in “And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride. --Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee
The overall feeling of a work, which is related to tone and mood.
The audience for a piece of literature may be a single person or a group of people. To what person or group is the text directed?


blank verse
Unrhymed lines of poetry usually in iambic pentameter. Plenty of modern poetry is written in blank verse.


The means by which an author establishes character. An author may directly describe the appearance and personality of character or show it through action or dialogue.
What the writer wants to prove. Also called an assertion, position, or thesis.
Counter-claim or Counter-argument:
An opinion that challenges the reasoning behind a position and shows that there are grounds for having an opposite view.
The point at which the action in a story or play reaches its emotional peak.
The struggle in the story. Traditionally, there are four main conflicts: person vs. self (internal) person vs. person (external) person vs. society (external) person vs. nature (external)
1)The definition of a word found outside of the dictionary.
2)Figurative meaning of a word.
3) The verb form is “to connote” which means “to suggest or imply a meaning beyond the literal meaning of a word.”
e.g. The word “cool” connotes “an awesome or exciting thing.”
The repetition of consonant sounds as in “The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew, The furrow followed free;” --The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
To explain how two things differ. To compare and contrast is to explain how two things are alike and how they are different.
A pair of rhyming lines in a poem often set off from the rest of the poem. Shakespeare’s sonnets all end in couplets.


Let me not to the marriage of true minds
Admit impediments. Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or bends with the remover to remove:
O no; it is an ever-fixed mark,
That looks on tempests, and is never shaken;
It is the star to every wandering bark,
Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.
Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks
Within his bending sickle's compass come;
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom.

If this be error and upon me proved,
I never writ, nor no man ever loved.



1)The definition of a word found in the dictionary.
2)Literal meaning of a word.
3) The verb form is “to denote” which means “to mean.”
e.g. The word “indolence” denotes “laziness.”
The resolution of the conflict in a plot after the climax. It also refers to the resolution of the action in a story or play after the principal drama is resolved. e.g. Romeo and Juliet’s families decide to build statues after their death.
1)Word choice.
2) The author’s choice of words. An author has the option of choosing any word from our language, why does he/she choose to use certain words and not others: In order to create a certain tone.
dramatic monologue
A poem in which the speaker reveals his or her character through an extended speech or a one-way dialogue. e.g. Browning’s “My Last Duchess”


A poem mourning the dead.
end rhyme
Rhyming words that are at the ends of their respective lines—what we typically think of as normal rhyme.
A long poem narrating the adventures of a heroic figure e.g. Homer’s The Odyssey.


A story that illustrates a moral often using animals as characters e.g. The Tortoise and the Hare
figurative Language
Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language. Any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject.
e.g. Whenever you call something “cool,” you’re not talking about its temperature but referring to some other quality it possesses.
A technique in which an author gives clues about something that will happen later in the story.
free verse
Poetry with no set meter (rhythm) or rhyme scheme.


A term used to describe a particular category or type of literature. Some literary genres are mysteries, westerns, and romances.


An extreme exaggeration. e.g. To say that it took you hours to walk home when in reality it was only 10 mins would be a hyperbole.


iambic pentameter
Ten-syllable lines in which every other syllable is stressed. - ’ e.g. “With eyes like stars upon the brave night air.”
The use of description that helps the reader imagine how something looks, sounds, feels, smells, or tastes. Most of the time, it refers to appearance.
e.g. “Tita was so sensitive to onions, any time they were being chopped, they say she would just cry and cry; when she was still in my great-grandmother’s belly her sobs were so loud that even Nacha, the cook, who was half-deaf, could hear them easily.” --Like Water for Chocolate
internal rhyme
A rhyme that occurs within one line such as “He’s King of the Swing.”


literal language
Language that means exactly what it says.


A comparison of two unlike things using any form of the verb “to be”–-i.e. am, are, is, was, were.
e.g.: “This chair is a rock,” or “I am an island.”


The use of words that sound like what they mean such as “buzz,” “bang,” or “tic-tock.”


An appeal to the audience’s emotions in rhetoric.


A four-line stanza.


rhetorical question
A question not meant to be answered but asked solely to produce an effect or to make a statement. The purpose to such a question, whose answer is obvious, is usually to make a deeper impression upon the hearer or reader than a direct statement would. Its effect is to make the reader stop and think about what is being asked.
e.g. “How many times have I asked you to take out the trash?”


Language that conveys a certain idea by saying just the opposite such as if it’s raining outside and you say, “My, what a beautiful day.”


The central idea of a work.


The authorial presence in a piece of literature whether in the first, second, or third person.

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