Watch the Matrix clip and discuss the questions below.
- What is knowledge?
- What is research?
- What is research philosophy?
- What is epistemology?
- What is ontology?
- What is axiology?
- What is methodology?
- What does research paradigm mean/What are research paradigms?
- Why should a researcher adopt a research philosophy?
1- Information known by an individual or group.
“the human cognitive effort to come to the truth… knowledge can be characterized as the interplay of three factors, namely, the subject, the object, and the position adopted with regard to the object.” (Gasset J. O. y, & García-Gómez J. ,2002).
2- Gathering “data from direct fieldwork observations, in‐depth, open‐ended interviews, and written documents” (Patton, 2005). Asking and answering questions; seeking knowledge to understand the world.
3- Reflecting your standpoint in your quest for knowledge. “Your perception of reality, how you gain knowledge, will affect the way in which you conduct the research in your dissertation” (Mason & McBride, 2014).
4- “study of nature of knowledge and justification” (Schwandt, 1997); “how we know what we know… how is knowledge constructed, interpreted, created, acquired and communicated… It enables you to examine your underlying belief system and philosophical assumptions as the researcher, about the nature of being, existence and reality” (Kivunja, C., & Kuyini, A. B., 2017).
the world can be known through testing and analysis=choose experimental design to know in your research
5- “the study of ‘claims and assumptions that are made about the nature of social reality, claims about what exists, what it looks like, what units make it up how these units interact with each other… what we mean when we say something exists” Mack (2010).
about scientific and philosophical “theory of being”
structure of the world; Is there a real world out there? Is our knowledge independent of it? If people perceive the world/knowledge differently how will you present your research as being the truth? What is your belief system as a researcher?
6- Ethical issues to be considered when planning your research. Privacy (information to be revealed/security of data), Accuracy (authenticity of info), Property (whose data/payment for data/publication), Accessibility (safety & security/who will access to the data) (Kivunja, C., & Kuyini, A. B., 2017).
7- the strategy or plan of your action/foundation of your research design, methods (concrete tools to gather data; qualitative & quantitative methods; your subject/research questions/philosophy determines your methods), approaches, and procedures used in a study; it is based on our ontological or epistemological position;
8- all the decisions taken during the process of study
a philosophical way of thinking (Kuhn, 1962) in a study
paradigm describes a researcher’s ‘worldview’ (Mackenzie & Knipe, 2006)
Epistemology, ontology, methodology and axiology are the four elements in a paradigm (Lincoln and Guba, 1985)
The relationship with…
Theoretical perspective: What approach à knowledge?
Ontology: What is reality?
Epistemology: How can I à reality/knowledge?
Methodology: What procedure à knowledge?
Methods: What tools à knowledge
Sources: What data knowledge
Kivunja and Kuyini (2017) say that Candy (1989) categorizes paradigms into three: Positivist, Interpretivist, Critical paradigms and Tashakkori and Teddlie (2003a; 2003b) add a fourth paradigm with elements from these three: Pragmatic paradigm.
Positivist (scientific) theoretical approach:
Prove/disprove a hypothesis as Mack, L. (2010) defines it. The philosophical underpinnings of educational research.
single reality truth (ontology); reality is measurable with reliable and valid tools (epistemology); experimental/surveys (methodology); quantitative/statistics/scaling/questionnaires (methods)
Constructivist/Interpretative (antipositivist) theoretical approach:
No single reality;
it is created by individuals in groups (in terms of ontology);
reality is interpreted-hermeneutics-/discovered/constructed (in terms of epistemology);
interpretivism-phenomenology, symbolic interactionism, hermeneutics/critical inquiry, feminism (in terms of theoretical perspective);
Ethnography, grounded theory, Phenomenological Research, Heuristic Inquiry, Action Research, Discourse Analysis, Feminist standpoint (in terms of methodology);
usually qualitative: interview, observation, case study, narrative, theme identification (in terms of methods)
Pragmatism: Reality is renegotiated, debated, and interpreted (ontology);
the best method solves problems, change is the aim (epistemology); Deweyan pragmatism-research through design-(Theoretical perspective); mixed-methods, design-based research, action research (methodology); a combination of qualitative & quantitative, data mining, expert review, usability testing, physical prototype (methods)
Subjectivism: Reality is what we receive (ontology); all knowledge is a matter of perspective (ontology); post-modernism, structuralism, post-structuralism (theoretical perspective); discourse theory, archaeology, Genealogy, deconstruction (methodology); auto-ethnography, semiotics, literary analysis, pastiche, intertextuality (method)
Critical: reality socially constructed under the constant internal influence (ontology); knowledge/reality socially constructed by power relations in society (epistemology); marxism, queer theory, feminism (theoretical perspective/approach); critical discourse analysis, critical ethnography, action research, ideology critique (methodology); ideological review, civil actions, open-ended interviews/questionnaires, focus groups (methods)
- Take a position: fundamental to the researcher’s approach to the subject; your methods are determined by the way you see the world; you persuade yourself and try to persuade others
Gasset José Ortega y, & García-Gómez Jorge. (2002). What is knowledge? Albany: State University of New York.
Kivunja, C., & Kuyini, A. B. (2017). Understanding and Applying Research Paradigms in Educational Contexts. International Journal of higher education, 6(5), 26-41.
Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. (1st Edn). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Lincoln, Y.S. & Guba, E. G. (Eds. 1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Mack, L. (2010). The philosophical underpinnings of educational research. Retrieved from https://secure.apu.ac.jp/rcaps/uploads/fckeditor/publications/polyglossia/Polyglossia_V19_Lindsay.pdf on 18/09/2019
Mason, P., & McBride, P. K. (2014). Researching tourism, leisure and hospitality for your dissertation. Goodfellow Publishers.
Mackenzie, N. & Knipe, S. (2006). Research dilemmas: paradigms, methods and methodology. Issues In Educational Research, 16, 1-15
Patton, M. Q. (2005). Qualitative research. Encyclopedia of statistics in behavioral science.